Battle of Wolf Mountain
|Battle of Wolf Mountain|
|Part of the Black Hills War|
A photoprint of an illustration of the Battle of Wolf Mountain that appeared in the May 5, 1877 edition of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
| United States|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Nelson A. Miles||Crazy Horse|
|Casualties and losses|
|Wolf Mountains Battlefield-Where Big Crow walked Back and Forth|
|U.S. National Register of Historic Places|
|U.S. National Historic Landmark|
|Nearest city:||Birney, Montana|
|Governing body:||Quarter Circle U Ranch|
|Added to NRHP:||January 10, 2001|
|Designated NHL:||October 6, 2008|
The Battle of Wolf Mountain (also known the Battle of the Wolf Mountains, Miles's Battle on the Tongue River, and the Battle of the Butte) occurred January 8, 1877 in the Montana Territory between the United States Army and a force of Lakota and Northern Cheyenne during the Great Sioux War of 1876-77. The Northern Cheyenne called it the Battle of Belly Butte.
The battle was fought about four miles southwest of modern-day Birney, along theTongue River. In 2001, the site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was raised to the status of National Historic Landmark in 2008.
Following the defeat of George Armstrong Custer in the 1876 Battle of Little Bighorn, by autumn, only a few bands of the warring Sioux and Cheyenne tribes had begun filtering back into their reservations and agencies to acquire food and annuity goods in preparation for winter. The United States Congress had angered many Indians by demanding that they cede the Black Hills to the government in exchange for these promised goods. The army had replaced civilian contractors in charge of the agencies, further convincing many war bands to stay away from them. General Nelson Miles led a mixed force of infantry, artillery and cavalry after Sitting Bull's band, and had effectively defeated them by December. Ranald S. Mackenzie had similarly defeated Dull Knife's Cheyennes, who trekked through snow and icy conditions to join up with the camp ofCrazy Horse in the Tongue River Valley. Concerned with the approaching winter and the destitute condition of Dull Knife's band, Crazy Horse decided to negotiate peace with the army. However, when a group of U.S. Army Crow scouts murdered Crazy Horse's delegation, the war chief demanded revenge. He led a series of small raids in an effort to draw out Miles from his post.
Miles marched out to the foothills of the Wolf Mountains, then set up a defensive perimeter on a ridge line. At 7:00 a.m., on January 8, Crazy Horse and Two Moonsbegan a series of attacks on the U.S. soldiers. Frustrated by army firepower, they regrouped several times and tried again. Attempts to flank Miles' line also proved to be futile when Miles shifted his reserves to fill critical positions. Finally, Miles ordered an advance, which secured a vital ridge as artillery shells rained among the Indian positions. Crazy Horse withdrew as weather conditions deteriorated.
Although a draw in many aspects, in effect the battle was a strategic victory for the U.S. Army, as it demonstrated that the Indians were not safe from the army even in winter and harsh conditions. Many individuals began slipping away and returning to their reservations. By May, Crazy Horse had led his surviving band into Camp Robinson to surrender.
Order of battle
U.S. Army (Col. Nelson A. Miles in command)
- Companies A, C, D, E, K, and detachments from Companies B and H, U.S. 5th Infantry Regiment
- Companies E and F, U.S. 22d Infantry Regiment
Lakota and Cheyenne (Crazy Horse and Two Moons)
- war bands with approximately 500 warriors
- ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- ^ a b National Historic Landmark nomination form, 2008-05-01. Accessed 2009-04-06.
- ^ a b "Wolf Mountains Battlefield / Where Big Crow Walked Back and Forth". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-04-06.